1,4-CINEOLE: A monoterpene with a camphor odor. Found in chamomile and cardomom.
ALCOHOLS: Organic molecules with a carbon atom attached to a hydroxyl (-OH) group. They help increase blood circulation, tend to be stimulating, and have antibacterial, antiinfectious and antiviral properties. Alcohols have low toxicity levels and are highly resistant to oxidation.
ALDEHYDES: Compounds that contain a carbonyl group. That is, a group that consists of a carbon and oxygen atom connected by a double bond.
ALKADIENE: A type of hydrocarbon with two or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
ANALGESIC: A substance that brings relief from pain.
ANTIBACTERIAL: Destroying bacteria, suppressing its growth or preventing bacteria from reproducing
ANTIBLASTIC: Immunity due to the prevention of an invading organism. Often, this term is used in reference to cancer.
ANTICARCINOGENIC: A substance that inhibits the growth of cancer.
ANTICONVULSANT: A substance that supressed the rapid firing of neurons in the brain which can lead to seizures.
ANTIEPILEPTIC: Interchangeable with anticonvulsant.
ANTIFUNGAL: Destroying or inhibiting the growth of fungi.
ANTIHISTAMINIC: A substance that inihibits or counteracts the histamines in the body.
ANTIINFECTIOUS: Not truly a term. Suggests preventing infection.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY: A substance or property that reduces swelling or inflammation.
ANTIOXIDANT: A substance that inhibits oxidation, thereby inhibiting oxidative stress from free radicals.
ANTIRHEUMATIC: Inhibiting inflammatory arthritis such as psoriatic, juvenile, idiopathic, rheumatoid, and other arthritides.
ANTITUMOR: Inhibiting the growth of tumors.
ANTIVIRAL: Inhibiting the reproduction of viruses; a substance affective against viruses.
ASCARIDOLE: A colorless monoterpenoid with a pungent odor and taste.
BENZALDEHYDE: A simple, colorless aldehyde in liquid form with an almond-like odor.
BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE: A sesquiterpene in the form of a pale yellow, oily, liquid form with a turpentine/clove-like odor.
BETA-MYRCENE: See Myrcene
BISABOLOL: A strong sesquiterpenoid found in German chamomile.
BISABOLOL OXIDE: An oxane with a very weak, almost undetectible (neutral) compound. Traces are found in German and Roman chamomile plants.
BISABOLONE OXIDE: At this time, only information on its chemical composition is available. Physical descriptions such as physical substance, odor and taste have not been located.
BORNEOL: A white-colored, monoterpenoid solid with a strong camphor odor. It is denser than water and therefore insoluble in H2O.
CAMPHENE: A colorless, crystal terpene (C10H16) with insecticidal properties. Oils with camphene (e.g. cypress citronella, neroli, ginger, etc.) are used in insect repellants.
CAMPHOR: It is both a bornane monoterpenoid and a cyclic monoterpene ketone that can be either colorless or a white crystalline powder with a strong "mothball" camphor odor and pungent taste. Acts as a plant metabolite.
CARVONE: A menthane monoterpenoid that is either pale-yellowish or colorless. It has antifungal attributes and can serve as an allergen.
CARVACROL: A phenol and a monoterpene derivative of cymene. It is an anti-fungal agent in plants with antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. It is a colorless to pale-yellowish thick liquid with a medicinal smoky odor.`
CEDROL: A colorless sesquiterpenoid with a woody, earthy odor.
CHAMAZULENE: A sesquiterpenoid found in anise and also chamomile oil. It has strong antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.
CINNAMIC ALDEHYDE: Also known as cinnamaldehyde, it is an yellow, oily, liquid aldehyde responsible for cinnamon's odor and taste. About 90% of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, extracted from the plant species Cinnamomum L., is from cinnamic aldehyde. It is used as a fungicide, corrosion inibitor in steel and other ferrous alloys.
CITRALS: A mixture of terpenoids that have antiseptic and antiviral properties.
CITRONELLOL: A monoterpenoid with antibacterial, antifungal,antiseptic and sedative properties. It is also a plant metabolite. Citronella, eucalyptus, melissa and rose oils contain citronellol.
CUMINIC ALDEHYDE: In the group of benzaldehydes, it is primarily derived from the seeds of Cuminum cyminum and has insecticidal properties.
D-LIMONENE: A monoterpene in a clear, colorless liquid form at room temperature. Citrus peel oils, especially those of oranges, contain up to 90% d-limonene as do dill and caraway seeds. Research studies suggest it has cancer-preventative properties and may suppress cholesterol.
DITERPENES: Chemical compouds that are made of four ispoprene units. They have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. They form the basis for compounds like retinal, retinol, etc.
DIURETIC: Causing an increase to urinate.
ESTERS: Chemical compounds obtained from carboxylic acids and alcohols. They calming, balancing and relaxing and have antispastic and antifungal properties.
EUCALYPTOL (1,8-CINEOL): a cyclic ether and monoterpene in the form of a colorless liquid. It has been used to control asthma through its anti-inflammatory cytokine inhibition.
EUGENOL: Also known as clove oil, it is a phenylpropanoid in the form of a clear, colorless, pale yellow, or amber liquid with an odor of cloves and pungent, spicy taste. It has analgesic, anesthetic, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anti-inflamnmatory, antiseptic, antioxidant, anticarcenogenic and sedative properties.
FARNESENE: A sesquiterpene with calming, sedative, antiviral and antispasmodic properties. It is found in German chamomile, valerian and ylang ylang.
FARNESOL: A sllightly yellow to colorless sesquiterpenoid liquid with a flowery odor. It is both a plant and fungal metabolite with microbial properties.
FENCHONE: A fenchane monoterpenoid and cyclic terpene ketone. It is found in many plants, especially in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).
FREE RADICALS: Free radicals are molecules with an uneven amount of oxygen atoms. These atoms can interact with other molecules, causing oxidative stress to the body via the skin. Free radicals, therefore, can cause visible cell damage to the skin.
HEMITERPENE: Any terpene with five carbon atoms and formed from a single unit of isoprene.
HISTAMINES: Organic compounds released by mast cells in the body in response to allergens and are part of the immune system. They are located in the skin and can cause flushing, itching, and breakouts.
HYDROCARBONS: Organic chemical compounds made up entirely of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). In relation to essential oils, terpenes make up most of this catergory of oil constituents. The basic molecular structure of a terpene is an isoprene unit , represented by the molecular formula C5H8 (5 carbon atoms and 8 hydrogen atoms)
HYPERTENSIVE: Raising blood pressure
HYPOTENSIVE: Lowering blood pressure
INSECTICIDAL: Effective against insects.
ISOPRENE: A hemiterpene and alkadiene, it is a clear, colorless liquid with a petroleum odor found naturally in some plants or obtained through distillation processes.
JASMONE: A cyclic ketone in the form of a colorless to pale yellow, oily liquid. It is the volatile part of the jasmine essential oil obtained from jasmine (Jasminum officinale).
KETONES: Organic water-soluble compounds with a carboxyl group with a hydrocarbon on either side. They liquify mucus, stimulate cell regeneration and promote the formation of tissue.
LINALOOL: A monoterpenoid, tertiary alcohol with antibacterial, anifungal, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral and sedative properties. It is a plant metabolite and an antimicrobial agent with a flowery scent. Bergamot, coriander, jasmine, lavender and rose oils all contain linalool.
LINALOOL OXIDE: A monoerpenoid with an odor described as sweet, earthy, lavender-like, dusty herbal.
METABOLITE: A product of cellular metabolism. Metabolites can serve many functions in organisms, such as structure, fuel, energy conversion, defense, stimulation and inhibition of enzymatic activities, etc.
MENTHOL: A white, crystal monoterpenoid with a peppermint odor. and taste.
MENTHONE: A monoterpene with a slight minty taste. It is similar in structure to menthol and occurs naturally in many essential oils.
METHYL NONYL KETONE: Also known as undecanone, it is a ketone found in cloves, ginger, palm kernel and soybean oils, as well as fruits including black currant buds, blackberry, raspberry, peach, bananas, guava, strawberries, etc. It is found in many essential oils, particularly in rue ( Ruta graveolens ) oil from which it can be extracted naturally. It is slightly oily, colorless to pale yellow.
MONOTERPENE ALCOHOLS: Also known as a monoterpenoid, an alcohol made of two isoprene units with a hydroxyl group attached to one of the carbons. Methanol (CH3OH) is a monoterpene alcohol. They are known to stimulant the immune system and have diuretic, antibacterial and antiseptic properties.
MONOTERPENES: A terpene that contains two isoprene units (C10). Most essential oils contain monoterpenes. They can both inhibit and discharge toxins. Monoterpenes have a stimulating effect on the body, ranging from soothing to irritating. Coniferous and citrus oils have high levels of monoterpenes. Most essential oils contain significant levels of monoterpenes EXCEPT: basil, birch, cassia, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, geranium, sandalwood, vetiver, wintergreen, ylang ylang.
MYRCENE: A monoterpene in the form of ayellow, oily liquid. It is found in cannabis, hops, lemongrass, verbana, bay, etc. It has anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties.
NEROL: A colorless, oily liquid monterpenoid with a sweet rosy "seawashed" odor and bitter taste.
NEROLIDOL: Also known as peruviol and penetrol. It is a sesquiterpenoid with a woody odor found in ginger and Peruvian balsam.
OXIDATION: The loss of electrons during a reaction by an ion, atom or molecule.
OXIDES: Chemical compounds with one or more oxygen atoms combined with another element. Example, -OH is oxygen (O) plus hydrogen (H), is h
OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS: Chemical compounds that contain oxygen (O). In relation to essential oils, oxygenated compounds include alcohols, ketones, oxides and phenols.
PERILLALDEHYDE: An aldehyde and monoterpenoid found in large amounts in perilla (Perilla frutescens ). It is a metabolite in mice and humans.
PHENOLS: Also called phenolics, organic compounds with a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom in a aromatic ring. Pure phenol is a colorless to sometimes white crystalline solid; less than pure forms may be pink to red with a "sickeningly sweet, acird" odor and "sharp, burning" taste.
PHENYLPROPANOID: A type of cinnamic acid. Phenylpropanooids serve many purposes in plants such as protection against pathogens, herbivories, ultraviolet light, and more.
PHEROMONAL: Having the effect of a pheromone, which is a checmical excreted by an animal that influences other animals of the same species in the food or sexual behavior.
PINENES: Alphe- and Beta-pinenes are Isomer monoterpenes, named for their dominant presence in pine oils and resins. They have strong antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic and expectorant properties.
PINOCAMPHONE: A monoterpone ketone. It is found in hyssop ( Hyssopus officinalis ). It can have convulsive effects. Because of this, essential oil of hyssop is not recommended for use with humans.
PURGATIVE: Having strong laxative properties.
SEDATIVE: Having calming properties; causing drowsiness or sleep.
SESQUITERPENE ALCOHOLS: Also known as sesquiterpenoid, a sesquiterpene alcohol with 3 isoprene units and a with a hydroxyl group attached to one of the carbons.
SESQUITERPENES: They are C-15 terpenoids built from three isoprene units. They have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, analgesic, antispasmodic, sedative properties. They can have stimulating effects on the liver and some glands of the body with research showing they increase oxygenation around the pituitary and pineal glands, entering the brain by their ability to sur[ass the blood-brain barrier.
TERPENES: A large group unsaturated hydrocarbons found throughout nature, especially after a plant has flowered. The prefix of a terpene reflects the number of isoprene units. For example, a "monoterpene" (C10) has two isoprene units, or 1 pair of isoprenes (1=mono).
TERPINEOL: A monoterpenoid that is a colorless to white solid with a lilac-like, floral odor and a taste ranging from a sweet lime to a floral peach. A plant metabolite.
TERPENOIDS: Terpenes that have oxygen-containing functional groups.
TETRATERPENES: Terpenes that have 8 isoprene units.
THERAPEUTIC GRADE, CERTIFIED THERAPEUTIC GRADE: Terms created by MLM (multi-level marketing) companies to differentiate their essential oils from other oils. The FDA does not recognize "therapeutic grade" because there is no oversight or grading system for essential oils in the FDA. The term is also not recognized in the biological sciences. Gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) are
THUJONE: A monoterpene and ketone in the form of a solid with a minty odor. It is present in wormwood (Artemisia absinthium).
THYMOL: A monoterpene and phenol in the form of colorless "plates" with a medicinal, spicy hebal, thyme-like odor and a spicy sweet, pungently medicinal taste. It is obtained from thyme oil, with antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic properties.
TRITERPENES: A terprene with 6 isoprene units, found in plant gums and resins.
VETIVEROL: A sesquiterpenoid (C15H24O) found in vetiver oil with a woody, balsamic odor.
VOLATILE: In chemistry: easily evaporates at room temperature. Also means subject to sudden and/or unpredicatble change.
ZINGIBEROL: A sesquiterpenoid in the form of a fragrant lquid and found in the essential oil of ginger.
Essential Oil constituents include esters, terpenes, alcohols, and oxides to name a few